It is interesting to recall about communication and how we refer to something or someone. That is what is meant by names. How these Towns, Streets, Families and Personal Names are know as, is referring to it by “A Name”.
Town and Street Names
The family had immigrated from a Eureopean town across the waters and brought with them the name of their town where they had come from. An example is Cambridge, Massachusetts (a close suburb city of Boston, Massachusetts) which was the named by the first settlers who arrived in this country in the 1600′s. They were from the town in England which was Cambridge, England. That town in Cambridge, England was named Cambridge because it contained a Bridge over the River Cam. Still another town was named Newport, Rhode Island and that was a brand new port on this side of the Atlantic. It wa a great shipping port in the early days of the colonies. Street names are also very interesting. ”Concord Road” was the road to Concord. Once the traveler reached the designation of the Concord town line, he would cross the line into the town of Concord and then the name of the road would change to the next town he was traveling to. This may have been the Town of Sudbury (next town over from Concord) and the same road he was traveling on now switched over to Sudbury Road i.e. the road to Sudbury so now the traveler was on the exact same road but there was a name change — now called “Sudbury Road”. Also street names designated where one was in the town such as Front Street (where the front of the town was) i.e. the main street Some old towns also had the names Main Street (down town where the library and town hall was located) or Middle Road (the middle of the town) and road’s name told one where they were. The Old Boston Post Road (which today still holds that name but is also Route #20). It was the road where the stagecoach traveled and the mail was carried. It is a very long road covering miles and miles in Massachusetts from one town and to the next.
Family Names and Individual Names
The family up there yonder was known as the Hill family. Charlie and Betty Hill got their name as that was the geographical location of the little shack where they raised thierr family up on the hill. They got their identity from being known as the family up on the hill. Another family might have been the Johnsons. He was the son of John and raised his family over there on his Papa’s farm. Still another family was the Butcher family. The father was the Butcher in town so his family was known by the trade of father. Individual Names are also interesting!! My name is Mary-Louise and I was named for my mother’s middle name and she recieved her middle name from her father’s close two sisters – one was Mary and the other Louise. Putting them together he named my mother after each of them and then years later I took on their name. I feel a special heritage and connection to them.
Where does your names descend from?? Individual Names, Family Names Street names, Town Names, State Names – what is their history?? Interesting to find out!!!
Two Great Awakenings in America — will there be a Third???? Let’s look at our Background of History.
The Puritans came to America’s Shores in 1620 and made several lasting contributions. Some of these were a Respect of Lawful Government, Value of Useful Work, Civic Participation and Responsibility and Concern for Education i.e. (Harvard University was founded by them in 1636). They also had a sense that a nation under Divine Guidance has a special mission to the entire world. They provided a religious background for many moral and social reform movements that continued into the following centuries. Some of these people were William Bradford (1590-1657), Thomas Hooker (1586-1647), Ann Hutchinson (1591-1643), Mary Dyer (1611-1660), and Roger Williams (1604-1682).
The next generation (children of the “First Comers”) watered down the Puritan Church of the First Comers. It was a movement that was brought in by the First Comers’ children now adults which was known as the “Half Way Covenant” (1657-1662). This movement allowed unsaved children and unsaved adults who had been baptized but “Not Saved” into the church and the church itself became liberal and lax. In other words they were allowing people into the church who were not True Followers of Jesus Christ and had not made a Commitment to follow Jesus, they were baptized but just going through the head knowledge without a Heart Commitment to the Lord.
The First of the Two Great Awakenings
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
This Liberal Church that the Half Way Covenant created led into the First of the Two Great Awakenings. It started with the Ministry of Jonathan Edwards and continued with that of George Whitefield (1714-1770). Some of their contributions were a resurgence of Calvinism and a test of personal conversion. They also stimulated concern for higher education as was seen in the opening of some major colleges of today Princeton (1746 Presbyterian), Brown University (1764 Baptist), Rutgers (1766 Dutch Reformed), and Dartmouth (1769 Congregational). They stressed Lay Leadership and the Elevation of the Common Person, Separation of Church and State, New Forms of Assembly and this was actually the first stage of the American Revolution!!!
The Second of the Two Great Awakenings
The second of the Two Great Awakenings stemmed from Deism which is a Philosophy (not an organized religion). This Deism Philosophy denied the doctrines of the Trinity and also denied the Atonement as well as denying Original Sin. It insisted that Salvation was by Character alone. This became known as the Universalist Church. Here is where Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) with his Transcendentalism came into existence. Now there were conditions being set up for Revival to happen. Many denominations grew through the teachings of Charles Finney (1792-1875), John Wesley (1703-171791), Thomas Cooke (1747-1814) and Francis Asbury(1745-1816). Roman Catholicism arrived from Europe. Sunday Schools were formed during this period, women were testifying and praying in public places, great moral and humanitarian crusades were formed like the Abolitionist Movement. This was followed by the years of Dwight Moody (1837-1899). Adoniram Judson Gordon (1836-1895), William Ashley Sunday known as “Billy Sunday”(1862-1935), C.I. Scofield (1843-1921), Harold John Ockenga (1905-1985) as well as William Franklin Graham known as “Billy Graham” (1918-still living). All these Preachers had a Movement of Spiritual Renewal. These Two Great Awakenings in America may be a backdrop to a Third Great Awakening in our Country of America through a history of former days into future days ahead. Watch and see what happens in the days ahead. You may just see a Third Awakening on the horizon!!!
Billy Graham (1918-still living)
How The Face of America Has Changed
The Face of America has changed. The Mass Production that occurred with the beginning of the Industrial Age also went hand in hand with the population explosion which is very evident today. More and more large families were being raised in order to have more helpers on the farms doing farm labor and this greatly increased the population. Also the fact that with two Wold Wars within a 50 years span of each other, this too increased the population as more soldiers returned home to loved ones and then there was a baby increase!! Thus the generation of retirees are known as “The Baby Boomers”. Because of their service to the United States Government, the Congress gave these soldiers a college education with grants, thus a college education for the working person. The Congress also gave them G.I. Housing and these homes for a soldier and his bride sprung up all over the country. This era had two major wars involving the entire planet and a Major Depression of the 1930′s in the United States smacked in the middle of those two horrific wars. The years were very hard on Americans. Not one family was unaffected!! After World War I, soldiers returned home to much change. The Automobile had been invented as well as Refrigeration, the Electric Light Bulb, the Telephone and the Airplane all had been invented and the Industrial Age had entered the scene. Then the Dark Days of the Deep Depression and the Stock Market Crash of the 1930′s sent things into a spiral of hopelessness and despair!! Many families were without Jobs and the country came out of those difficult years only to enter into another World War named WW II in the 1940′s. Following the end of this horrific war with the Atom Bomb being dropped on Japan, the American soldiers came home to still more changes. At the end of the war, we now were into the era of Television which had been birthed from Radio which was a visual radio and from there into the era of Technology. This led people more into isolation, sitting in front of their T.V.’s and later their computers, no longer socializing on the front porch and no longer letter writing but sending off Electronic Mails ( E-Mails) or Texting!! Now the days of the Industrial Age are being left behind as we travel into the Age of Information with Computers, Cell Phones and Social Media taking over the planet. One of the problems which we have today is a problem that each former generation also had and that is the Resistance to Change.
The Face of America Continues to Change
The Face of America continues to change from the Days of the Individual Farm to the Industrial Age of Mass Production to our Society now changing yet again this time to a more Technical Interaction of a Global Information Age. With that multiculturalism is rapidly redefining what it means to be an American. In the place of the “Proverbial Melting Pot” we have a new Paradigm with an emphasis on preserving the ethnic and cultural identity of the diverse communities within our country. About ten years ago the Washington Post published an article on how this country’s demographic shift has been so significant that within the lifetime of today’s teens, no individual ethnic group – including Caucasians of European descent will comprise a majority of the nation’s population. Currently we have a President of the United States who is a man of color. Years ago men of his color had been slaves in the south. My father in law who is 100 years old (the Patriarch of our family) says “the young people of our country need to learn two languages besides English. Those two languages need to be Spanish and Chinese, he says”!! Yes, the face of America continues to change as the wold itself is changing constantly. Every family will be affected. We all need to learn to blend our hearts and our hands and to no longer be Resistant to Change but to Embrace it and love our neighbors learning more about their heritage and customs growing our planet into a friendlier place to abide. Our planet is our home and our globe is getting smaller. The Global Information Age teaches us more about our neighbors who are our friends and no longer our enemies. We need to extend our hand of friendship and embrace our neighbors with acceptance and brotherly love.
Flags of our World within our Country
What Does The Family Birth Order Mean?
The Family Birth Order refers to whether one is perhaps the first born or the last born or the middle child in our family of origin (the family that we were born into). Kevin Lehman has written a book entitled ”The Birth Order Book — Why You are the Way You Are”. Below are some of his interesting thoughts!!
First Born in the Family Birth Order are people who are known for getting themselves involved in too many things. They frequently wind up with little time for themselves and are often “care takers” and “people pleasers”. They like the approval of others. They also thrive with structure. They tend to be leaders and are reliable. They like perfection. They are list makers and are well organized. They often are critical, serious and quite scholarly. Some suggestions: Work on saying “NO”. One of the Best ways to know how to say “NO” is to know your own limits. Another suggestion is to lower your sights a little. Parents have high expectations of their very first child. They in turn pass this on to the first born and the first born expects to be perfect to live up to the expectations of their parents.
Middle Child Born in the Family Birth Order are people who are mediators and tend to have fewer pictures in the family album. They like to avoid conflict and are independent. They are extremely loyal to their peer group and they have many friends. Some suggestions: Nurture your natural people skills. As a middle child one was forced in growing up to negotiate, to see both sides of the story and to deal with life as it truly is. Be sure to express yourself. Often a middle child feels their opinions are never heard.
Last Born in the Family Birth Order are people who can be manipulative and are outgoing charmers. They tend to blame others and are “show offs” to get attention as they are sometimes lost in the family and try to get their fair share of attention. They are people persons and love people around them. They tend to have a lot of friends. They are good salespeople. Often they can be disorganized and messy especially in a large family as they receive instructions from older siblings and don’t always get things straight. Some suggestions: Accept responsibility for yourself and your decision making ability and always be aware of your gifts which will make you an asset in any situation.
Where are You in the Family Birth Order in Your Family?
Remember that whatever Family Birth Order you were born into in your family, becoming AWARE is the KEY!!!! Then and only then you can start to work on life issues to make your life meaningful in relationship to yourself first and then meaningful with relationships to others around you!!
Family and School Reunions
Family Reunions during the summertime are a wonderful happening!! They are a time when the extended family comes together: Aunts, Uncles, Cousins, young and old all with a commonality – they are all Kin!!! It’s a great time of catching up with each other and also meeting new additions to the family. Maybe because of distance or schedules one hasn’t met a new baby or a set of twins has arrived in the family!! It is a time of looking over old pictures, reminising days gone by or the sharing of new pictures of a trip that someone has taken since the last get together. Reunions can be held anywhere — the old family estate (if still owned by someone in the family) or at a park or for larger reunions at a hotel. It doesn’t matter where you all meet, just that you all get together. These reunions are usually held in the summertime when school is out and the weather is warmer and good for vacation travelling if your family is not living close-by which today is the case in many families. Often jobs have taken us geographically away from our family of origin’s homestead. School Reunions are great fun also. At my 40th Nursing School reunion, I remember hearing someone’s voice and remembering who they were back when we were in Nursing school days together. Their physical appearance had changed but their voice had not.
What To Do At Reunions??
The ideas of what to do are endless!! First of all they are usually centered around food. Many times a huge Barbecue if outside and if inside at a hotel around a Big Buffet. Sharing old family recipes are a special part of a Family Reunion. Also you might wear the same colored Tee Shirt and have a Family Logo on it. Class Reunions might have music going on reminiscing the era when your class graduated. Family Reunions might have dancing. It all varies on what you can do but the main theme is to have a wonderful memorable time!! Games for the kids are essential in family reunions and help the little ones meet up with their cousins who they may not have seen for a while. These kids’ activities can be everything from relay races to hay-rides!! Just ask one of the kiddos and they will help you come up with some great suggestions!! A Slide Show or Picture Presentation for the elderly is always a thrilling moment for them. It brings back memories for the older generation and also teaches the younger adults what life back then when growing up was like. Also are memories of dear “Kin” who have passed to the other side. Scrap-booking is a great winter project in anticipation of an upcoming summertime reunion. Life is short!! Have fun and enjoy each other!! That is the main focus of summertime reunions whether near home or a vacation trip away!!
Candles Lighting Up the Darkness
Fire started way back in the age of the first human inhabitants on the planet. From there candles evolved and they lit the way of the darkness of night. Candles were developed independently in many countries throughout history. The earliest known candles were made from whale fat by the Chinese during the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.). In early China and Japan tapers were made from wax from indigenous insects that was combined from seeds. They used rolled rice paper for the wick. Later fish were used putting them on a forked stick and lighting them. The first candles in Europe were made by Nomadic Tribes. In the reign of the Anglo-Saxon king Alfred the Great (circa 849-899 A.D.) they used Candles as Clocks. In the Royal Chamber they used the candle to divide up the day into equal periods of Study, Prayer, Royal duties and Rest for the Body. The first use of calibrated candles for time keeping in England was 870 A.D. By the 13 th Century A.D. candle making had become a Guild Graft. These Candle makers called Chandlers went from house to house making candles from fats saved from the kitchen and also sold their own candles from within their own shops. By 1415 tallow candles were used in street lighting. Joseph Sampson was granted a United States patent for a new method of candle making in 1790. This was the second patent ever granted in the United States. Up until DayLight Savings Time which began April 30th 1916, farmers and their families would all go to bed as soon as it got dark around 6:00 PM. If they stayed up later than that they would have to light thier homes with candles. Most of them would eat a big Breakfast as soon as the sun would come up and would eat their main meal of the day at Noontime. They would work the fields and burn off the calories during mid day. At night (our dinnertime) they would just have a light meal or a snack before retiring to bed. Candles were dangerous as many homes caught on fire because of an accident in knocking over a lantern or the candle on the table.
Today’s Candles Light Up Our World
Still today candles are being used but for a much different reason. They bring a calming presence in the enviroment of the home and now we even have scented candles bringing a fragrant aroma and atmosphere setting instrument as their functionality has changed. This was all due to the invention of the electric light bulb. Two words one might not know what they mean in reference to candles and they are Snuffers and Doubters. A Snuffer is a simple scissors with broad blades used to trim candlewicks. Untrimmed wicks would protrude into the center of the candle’s flame causing the flame to dim and would bring out a black smoke. The charcoal wick was called snuff and was made from charcoal. Later the snuffer had a small box on one blade to catch the snuff. Snuffers have beccome obsolete due to the invention of the self-consuming wick of the candle. The Doubter (which has often been mislabeled as a snuffer) is a small metal cone attached to a long handle used to “Do Out” the candle flame. Doubters are still commonly used today to put out the candle so that the wax is not sent onto the table cloth which does sometimes happens when blowing a candle out. It is interesting to see how words change and the functionality of things we use and enjoy where their heritage stems from!! Candles also are a Symbol of Hope, Faith Peace and Love as Jesus himself in Holy Scripture represented HIMSELF as the Light of the World. In John 8:12 Jesus said and I quote: ” I (Jesus) am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”
Many of the diseases of yester Year in the United States are but history fortunetley. They took their toll on the people that lived during the 1700 and 1800 era. Of these epidemics thousands of lives were lost. The most common of the diseases that took so many lives in the 1700′s was Yellow Fever and Small Pox. During the 1800′s the main disease was Cholera. In 1793 Philadelphia was our nation’s capital and during that year alone in less than 4 months 4,000 people perished from Yellow Fever which wa about 10 % of Philadelphia’s population. The epidemic was so severe that is shut down the nation’s government and the people of that great city fled!! Also in the same century in 1762 (one hundred years before the Civil War and just 13 years before the beginning of the Revolutionary War) another epidemic hit and this time the Disease was Small Pox killing hundreds of Americans and decimating the Amaerican Indian population of the New World. Catarrah is a disease that one doesn’t hear much about today and it was a disease that meant everything from the Common Cold to an Upset Stomach. It was not usually fatal. Books and diaries written during the 1800′s mentioned the disease of “Ague”. It was an all encompassing term for the symptoms of fever, chills, aches and pains, nosebleeds and a cough and what the folks had was actually later diagnosed as the disease of Malaria. Consumption later called Tuberculosis and still later know as “TB” was also a disease that took many lives in the 1880′s and early 1900′s. Sanitariums were set up where these patients were placed far away from the general population in an attempt to isolated the disease. Many children were affected even into the 1900′s with the following diseases which fortunately we have now immunizations for. These childhood diseases were: Mumps, Measles, Chicken-Pox, Diptheria, Scarlet Fever, Whooping Cough and Poliomyelitis (known also as Polio).
Today’s Medicine and Diseases
So much of what we know today like basic hand-washing was not known to our ancestors before 1900. The advancement in medicine of the last century has been amazing!! Immunizations against the fatal diseases listed above has nearly stifled their existence. The development of technology and advancements in research continues to make us a healthier people and the diseases of Yester-Year in the United States are a difficult and sad part of the history of our past, Yet unfortunately with the complexity of our modern day culture it currently ties up the hands of the Researcher and many cures like for Cancer are held up because of the Greed of Money and the Challenges of Politics. It takes 14 years to get a new medication from the Pharmaceutical lab into the hands of the Public. Then it takes an immense amount of advertisement and education to tell the public about the new medication. However in the mix of complexity, the Robotics surgeries are fast growing and becoming the tool of our advanced society making it safer and healthier for our ever growing population. Hospitals now have shorter stays and more care is being done in patients’ homes. In the days to come more diseased and patient’s cases will be diagnosed and even treated by the use of computer technology in our own homes. As with so many things, today’s medicine is going through some major changes as we continue to live in our complex and diversified world.
Cartography – What is this?
Maps have been used for thousands and thousands of years to help people get from one place to another. Webster’s dictionary describes Cartography as the art of technique of making maps or charts. These maps illustrate and show the features in the landscape in order to guide us to our destination. Maps are a snapshot in time even before cameras and even before the invention of the Printing Press they provide a fascinating image of our past. They show settlements of villages and cities and also provide us with philosophies of map makers of days gone by when the maps of the day told about the belief of that day that the world was considered to be Flat.
Follow the History Path of Map Making
Maps originated in earliest of civilizations of Babylonia, Mesopotamia and China. The earliest maps that have been discovered are from the period of 2300 B.C. in Babylonia where the maps were created on clay tablet showing settlements, crop fields, and irrigation sources. Mesopotamian maps around 1600 B.C. depict cities and tracts of land and show settlements, hunting grounds, water sources, and land boundaries. In China maps were being carved on wooden plates from the era of 240 B.C. The Romans and the Greeks civilization advanced the science of Cartography (Map Making). The Europeans trying to increase their wealth and their influence developed the art and the science of Cartography even more extensively. Early Colony pioneers in the new country of America pursed the Cartography trade even further. They explored our new nation eastward to westward and their maps were a thing of survival to them in uncharted soil. These early explorers left maps for others to follow behind them. The invention of the Printing Press took Map Making to the common folk so maps could be mass produced and no longer were just an aide to the rich and famous, the kings and queens. Now a traveler could purchase a map and be successful in his journey. With the development of man taking to the air combined with the invention of Photography this all led to significant advances in the Cartography world. It was especially important in the reconnaissance and mapping of bombing targets in WW II. Satellite Photography and imaging followed and we are all familiar with satellite pictures of what our planet looks like from outer space. The most recent revolution in map-making happened in the 1970’s with the development of Geographic Information Systems and digitization of our country was completed in 1995. Now The G.P.S. (Geographical Positioning System) puts a map of the world in the palm of one’s hand with our Smart Phones. These devices will even re-map you around a detour ahead. Map Making has really come a long way getting us from one place, years ago to another place today in time and space Tomorrow’s Maps will have still more to show us!!
Are YOU like a Tree??
Sometime we compare a person to an animal such as “He is sly as a Fox” or “She has a memory like an Elephant” or “My, he is strong as an Ox” but does anyone ever compare us to a Tree?? Let us look at some of our Trees’ attributes.
Your Personality — Which Specific Tree are YOU Most like?
(Bounces Back Fast and Weathers the Storms)
Aspen Trees They bounce back Fast and weather the storms well. Aspen Trees root system is protected and is deep within the ground. After a forest fire these Aspens are the first tree to bounce back because of this deep root system. It is a very hardy tree and grows easily. Aspens needs space to grow but they do not like to be in isolation. Their flat branches with their quaking leaves shimmer in the wind and they have been given a nick name of the “Quaking Aspen”. This movement of flexibility in the storms grant them the fact that they are not easily uprooted. They live in high altitudes & use snow as a water substitute.
(Late Bloomer but Watch Out!! Team Approach)
Bamboo Trees These trees are late Bloomers but watch out!! They have the Team Approach. Bamboo Trees are actually from the Grass family but they can grow to be Giants!! Their seeds are planted in the ground and it takes a while to germinate but then suddenly their growth heaven ward is remarkably rapid. Unlike other trees that are independent of each other, the bamboo thrives on its fellow bamboo trees in the neighborhood. A Bamboo grove works together with its mass of overhead foliage interlocking and moving together causing no damage to the overall grove when storms attack. Their leaves bonding together so to speak, reach out with a Team Approach of Protection.
Oak Leaves and Oak Tree’s Acorns
They have strength in Durability and Provide Shade & Beauty!! Oak trees are broadleaved trees and are hardwood. They can live well over 200 years and their roots grow very deep. They are a strong tree and have magnificent shade. They stand up strong against nature’s elements such as strong winds and heavy rains. Because of their strong root system buried deep in the ground they do not uproot easily. Their oak leaves are quite colorful and stay on the trees longer than other trees providing a longer autumn appearance of true beauty.
Interesting Thoughts to Ponder!!
So how do you see yourself and your personality type perceived in a tree??